Main research areas of the Faculty are: Lithuanian studies: philological, cultural and interdisciplinary aspects. Research and development; Multilingual discourses: Linguistics, Literature, Culture. The academic staff of the Faculty carries out intensive research in the fields of Baltic Studies, Lithuanian Studies, Classical Studies, English Studies, German Studies, and Literature Studies. Among areas of particular interest to the Faculty scholars are the Indo-European, Baltic, and Lithuanian Linguistics, the Latin Literature of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, functional aspects of Germanic and Romance Linguistics, and Literary tendencies in Lithuania and the world. Among the most significant topics in Baltic studies are Lithuanian Dialectology, Theory of the Baltic Languages, Old Prussian Language and Writings, and Lithuanian Lexicology and Lexicography.
The Faculty carries on and participates in many publishing projects. Faculty publications include research journals Baltistica [Baltic Studies], Kalbotyra [Lingistics], Literatūra [Literature]. Every four years an International Congress on Baltic Studies is held at the University of Vilnius. Vilnius is also the centre of activities of the World Association for Baltic Studies.
Every year the teaching and research staff at the Faculty produce over 50 publications: monographs, textbooks (both for universities and secondary schools), translations, collections of articles, encyclopaedias, and dictionaries.